HYPNOLOGICAL LEGACY OF A SECULAR SAINT
FROM 1889 TEXT
TRANSLATED BY LAURENT CARRER
2. FOREWORD BY MELVIN GRAVITZ, Ph.D.
3. AUTHOR/TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE
4. LIEBEAULT AND HIS TIMES
5. WHO WAS THIS MAN AND WHAT DID HE BELIEVE
6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE DEGREES OF INDUCED SLEEP
7. WHAT THEY SAY ABOUT DR. LIEBEAULT
1. [TRANSLATOR: Laurent Carrer is a French native who has lived in the U.S. since 1978. He holds a Ph.D. in Clinical Hypnotherapy from American Pacific University and is a professional translator certified by the American Translators Association. Laurent is passionate about making more historical resources available to English speakers and has begun translating the important works of French pioneers, making them pertinent to our times by providing relevant commentary and biographical/historical background. He is the author of Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault: The Hypnological Legacy of a Secular Saint, which features a translation of Liebeault's book on hypnosis. He is currently working on the translation into English a book by Abbe Faria. Link to purchase book and Laurent Carrer's website: http://www.trance-lations.com/index2.html]
2. FOREWORD: An Appreciation: Melvin A. Gravitz, Ph.D. Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences George Washington University Washington, D. C.
Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault (1823-1904):Modern hypnosis owes a great debt to this founder of the Nancy School. Together with Hippolyte Bernheim, his subsequent colleague, Liebeault built upon the foundations earlier propounded by such notable predecessors as the Abbe Faria and Etienne Azam, in France, and James Braid, an English physician.
Liebeault was a remarkable man in many ways. He was the youngest of 6 boys born into a modest family in the French province of Lorraine. After working many jobs to pay for his education, he completed his medical degree in 1850 at the age of 26. He then established a practice in the village of Pont-Saint-Vincent, near Nancy, where he soon acquired the reputation of being an empathic, kind and quiet physician who truly cared for his patients. It was typical for him to see 50-60 patients in the morning, and he never closed his office until all had been attended. At the onset, he utilized traditional techniques of medical treatment; but even prior to the completion of his medical education, he had been introduced to the non-traditional idea that there were factors other than medicine and surgery that could have therapeutic effects. He later recalled that as a student he had read an "old book," in which was described the power of suggestion as a force in treatment. That notion intrigued him and prompted him to read the writings of Faria, Azam, and Braid, all of whom were conceptual forerunners to suggestive , therapeutics. At first, Liebeault believed-erroneously-that hypnotism was similar to nocturnal sleep, but he grew to appreciate that verbal suggestion could be a powerful force in the successful treatment of numerous medical disorders. Hypnotism, now known as hypnosis, was the name given by early Nineteenth Century French investigators to what was at that time termed animal magnetism, or mesmerism.
Liebeault's strong belief that suggestion was the force underlying the induction and beneficial effects of hypnotism brought him into conflict with the then-popular and influential theories of Jean-Martin Charcot, who was the most important neurologist of his time. In contrast to the Nancy School's views, Charcot and the Paris School maintained that hypnotism was linked to hysteria and induced by physical agents and stimuli. That Liebeault, a little known country doctor, contradicted the teachings of the great Charcot must have seemed incredible to many at the time. But he persisted in his views, having been convinced by the many successful outcomes of his work that suggestion was indeed a significant factor in both hypnotic induction and therapy. The influence of the Nancy School soon spread quickly in Europe and America, and Charcot's theories are remembered only as a historiographic matter.
His approach to his patients was also unusual. Because many of his patients were relatively poor, uneducated, and superstitious rural people, they feared the mysterious reputation that surrounded the modality. To obtain their consent, Liebeault therefore presented them with a choice: they could either be treated using traditional methods for a fee, or they could agree to be treated by hypnotism. Many elected the latter, and because the modality proved effective in many instances, in a few years his practice consisted almost entirely of such patients.
Liebeault took a sabbatical of two years in 1864-66, using that interval to develop an organized theory of hypnosis and hypnotic treatment which he first published in 1866. That book described his system of induction and the various states that result from hypnotism, and he speculated on the mechanisms by which the modality affected the healing process. It was called Induced Sleep and Analogous States considered mostly from the Viewpoint of the Action of the Mind on the Body. There has long been a widely circulated, probably apocryphal story that only one copy of this treatise was sold, but I believe that to be highly unlikely, given that several copies have emerged over the years since its publication. Even so, that first edition is extremely rare and virtually unattainable today. Fortunately, a second albeit abbreviated edition was published by Liebeault in French in 1889 and then reprinted in 1976: However, no English-language translation of the second edition has been available until now, and the author of this present book, Dr. Laurent Carrer, is to be highly commended for making this important work available in that widely-known language. His translation is faithful to the original and moreover has been undertaken from the standpoint of a hypnotherapist, so that the nuances of meaning have been well conveyed. Present-day hypnotherapists, and indeed all psychotherapists and practitioners of the healing arts, can derive benefit from reading this classic book, not solely for its historic value but also because of its discussion of the significant role of suggestion in the treatment of psychological and medical disorders.
3. AUTHOR/TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE: This is the first English translation of a seminal work by the 19th Century cofounder of the famous School of Nancy, who inspired Freud to develop further his concept of the unconscious mind. This1889 text, is a re-edition of the 1866 text scientifically establishing the power of the mind over the body.
The pecking order in the realm of the Psychosomatic, or what is now popularly called the mind-body connection, has long divided the scientific world. Are we but spirit creating flesh, or are our thoughts and thinking ability mere products of physiology? Liebeault was one of the first physicians to explore this question by scientifically studying the influence of the psyche on the soma. He gathered solid clinical data from thousands of successful hypnotic treatments, which he performed at no charge for the poor people of Nancy.
The "good doctor," as he was often affectionately called, was opposed during most of his career to mysticism of any kind. In particular, he seemed dedicated to arguing that hypnotic trance was not induced by a transfer of fluid (Mesmer's view) or a psychophysiological phenomenon (Braid's theory), but by verbal suggestion. Liebeault sought to demonstrate this state of trance (or attention
as he called it) could be used reliably as a therapeutic induction tool.
In Part I of the book, Liebeault bases all hypnotic phenomena on natural psychical processes, not unlike Dr. Milton Erickson, years later, in the U.S. In Part II, he provides scientific explanations for certain phenomena that had been considered mystical by professional magnetizers and somnambulists before him-Erickson used to enjoy doing the same. It is interesting how two men so able to produce magical results with their patients insisted on accounting for their skills in technical terms. Interesting also that many have used their techniques, but few have been as successful as these old wizards.
Although Dr. Liebeault has been mentioned in other people's work (Professor Bernheim's, Dr. Bramwell's, Dr. Ellenberger's, Sigmund Freud's), I challenge you to find a book about him and his life at your local bookstore. Never one to put himself forward or seek fame, he preferred to dedicate himself to his practice. Liebeault did publish, though unsuccessfully. As he says himself in his preface, was at the wrong place, at the wrong time." One legend goes that only a single copy of the 1866 book was ever sold and that it was purchased by Dr. Hippolyte Bernheim, a renowned professor at the Medical School in Nancy. Actually, Bernheim recounts that when he went to meet and investigate Liebeault, the doctor gave him the book.
While the works of Bernheim, a talented and ambitious man who published more successfully than Liebeault, have been translated into several languages, Liebeault's work has until now been unavailable to those who don't speak French and, until recently, inaccessible even to those who do. For many years, his book was difficult to locate. Even though today a facsimile of one of the rare surviving copies of the 1889 re-edition can be consulted on the French National Library website accessibility does not equate with readability, and contemporary readers of the original text are bound to be challenged by the author's 19th Century syntax and terminology as well as by his heavy personal style. On top of which, as a misunderstood and underestimated country doctor, Liebeault felt heneeded to use an emphatic style and at times reiterate the same argument.
By translating this book and conducting the research presented here, I have endeavored to make Liebeault's important work clear and accessible to English-speaking readers. In the process, I may be accused of making the work even more readable for them than it is for native French speakers. My modest offering is an overdue homage to the old master, and I hope it will help lift him to his deserved place in the history of hypnotism and psychology.
Remember when reading this book to activate your temporal and cultural filters. This is a text from the 19th Century, written by a French country doctor. We must take into account that values and knowledge in his era were different from ours: Liebeault speaks of savage tribes of Negroes, of impressionable women's vapors, of a colleague's "deaf-mute" as if the patient were his possession; he describes cruel experiments that nowadays would not be tolerated by any board of ethics; he comes to the provocative conclusion that children might actually know how to think and feel. It would be unfair to judge him according to our modern standards. Nor should a few digressions on animal husbandry and farfetched theories deter usfrom recognizing his true genius.
To place Liebeault's contribution in perspective, it is worth noting that the people of Nancy in his day traveled by horse carriage, bathed only once a month in specialized bath houses and, if well-to-do, had their shoes made by cobblers (it was only in the late 1800s that the first shoe factories appeared in Nancy). To ensure that farmers reported what they actually earned, the French IRS sent a man out to measure the size of the manure piles in front of country homes. Let's hope our own descendants do not judge us purely on the basis of their superior knowledge and our least flattering traits.
Dr. Liebeault's dedication, and his phenomenal results, are impressive by any century's standard. Seeing daily legions of patients for free while subjecting himself to ridicule by the great Parisian professors as well as local colleagues -how many have the courage to follow such a thankless path? Indeed, Liebeault's commitment to his vocation and his beloved patients has prompted some scholars to call him a "secular saint."
4. LIEBEAULT AND HIS TIMES: Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault was born in Favieres, a small town in the Lorraine region of France, on September 16, 1823, at seven in the morning. The spelling of his last name varies according to the researcher His birth certificate reveals Liebault as the original version At some point, a clerical error (a common occurrence in those days) resulted in the name appearing as Liebault The latter spelling having been adopted by the doctor himself, I have chosen to use it throughout this book.
Ambroise was the sixth and last son of Jean Nicolas Liebeault and Jeanne Fauconnier. Some sources indicate the existence of 12 children. According to Mrs Monique Valobra (nee Liebeault), Dr.Liebeault's great-grandniece and last living relative, however, the testamentary deed of gift from Jean Nicolas, dated 1837, lists only six sons Another deed from Mrs. Fauconnier's two sisters also bequeaths their property to Jeanne's six sons.
Liebeault is often portrayed as the son of a poor farmer, yet all official documents indicate that Jean Nicolas was actually a financially comfortable land owner and farmer who could afford to send Ambroise to seminary and then medical school, although none of his five brothers chose to pursue higher education. (p 1)
Jean Nicolas died in April 1833 at the age of 52. when Ambroise was barely ten years old and still a pupil in seminary school Since his religious career had been imposed by his father.
Ambroise eventually abandoned his seminary studies Later. in 1844 at the age of 21, he chose to pursue his own interests by (p 2) entering the medical school at Strasbourg In 1848, he began his internship there. During that year, Liebeault was exposed to a book by Dr. Teste which described several induction techniques and enabled him to begin practicing and investigating hypnosis on his own In his manual, Teste included the Rapport sur Iíhypnostisme, which, according to the Belgian philosopher Delboeuf, was the first work on magnetism to make a significant impact on Liebeault. This may have been the time when he began to form what would eventually become a lifelong aim to find a scientific explanation behind the "mysterious" results obtained by magnetizers
In his "Confession of a physician hypnotist' (see translation of the full text at the end of this book), Liebeault states his method was actually initially founded on that of Baron Dupotet (a flamboyant magnetizer who eventually showed interest in magic) and Charles Lafontaine (a Swiss fun fair operator from Geneva who had also inspired James Braid, the famous Scottish surgeon). Liebeault then describes subsequently and sequentially adopting Braid's hypnotic method, Pierre Durand's (alias Durand de Gros) and Abbe Faria's, before finally developing a method combining his favorite aspects of all the techniques to which he had been exposed. Liebeault's ideas were also influenced by the British philosopher John Stuart Mill.3
Liebeault's efforts were stopped short by one of his teachers, Professor Schutzenberger, a graduate of the Medical School of Vienna. Having learned of his student's interest in "animal magnetism," he warned Liebeault against it... and the student (p 3) listened, choosing to set aside his passion for the sake of his career. Liebeault's thesis, 30 pages long, was presented February 7, 1850 (at three in the afternoon).
After successfully completing his degree, Liebeault moved to Pont-Saint-Vincent, where he practiced as a country physician. A year later, on October 27, 1851, at the age of 28, he married Anne Marie Charlotte Travailleur, daughter of Ives Travailleur and Marie Antoinette Guerrier. Anne Marie was 25 years old at the time of her marriage, which took place in the village of St. Nicolas, with two of Ambroise's older brothers (Pierre Liebeault and Jean Nicolas Liebeault Jr , both landowners) acting as witnesses.
Once again, Liebeault tried to pursue his interest in hypnosis, offering to treat some of his rural patients using this method. Once again his efforts were thwarted. A wise farmer advised him not to use techniques considered to be witchcraft by many locals. Liebeault followed this advice and, being a very good general practitioner, became quite successful, amassing a modest fortune during the next ten years.
But the hypnotic bug bit him again nine years later, in 1860, after attending a lecture by Velpeau on the work done by Dr. Azam of Bordeaux, the surgeon responsible for introducing Braid's research to France. That same year Liebeault used the wealth he had accumulated to move to Nancy and open what he called his "polyclinic" where he offered to treat most types of ailments with hypnosis for free. (He would still use traditional medicine for those willing to pay) Liebeault performed many successful treatments over the next few years and hoped to convince his colleagues of the validity of his results.
Unfortunately, he was not well received; on the contrary, Liebeault was considered both a simpleton (for not taking money) and a charlatan (for using hypnosis). Frustrated, he removed his doorplate with "A. A. Liebeault, physician" and put up a new one stating simply "A A Liebeault."
From 1864 on Liebeault dedicated himself to writing his first book, which he published in 1866. Very few copies were sold, and the book was badly (p 4) reviewed by the societe medico-psychologique. Professor Liegeois, who later was to become one of Liebeaultes close followers, humorously recalls leafing through the book when it first came out but not buying it because it was too expensive.
Liebeaultes research in hypnosis was interrupted by the 1870 war against Germany. He volunteered as a physician at the seminary of Nancy, which had been converted into a hospital for wounded German prisoners. This interruption of his regular practice gave the doctor an opportunity to write another book, Ebauche de psychologie, which was published in 1873 as he reopened his clinic.
The second work went as unnoticed as the first. Thousands of successful treatments, however, brought the gifted practitioner attention His activities were first officially described to the local medical society by Dr Dumont, who was in charge of the physics laboratory at the medical school at Nancy and was also a lawyer On May 10, 1882, Dumont introduced four of the patients he himself had treated by hypnosis (after having been trained by Liebeault) to the societe de medecine de Nancy at the psychiatric hospital of Mareville. This was the beginning of a general interest in Liebeault's work by the officials of the city of Nancy Dumont was also responsible for introducing Liebeault to the influential Professor Bernheim, who was impressed and went on to establish with Liebeault the main tenets of the School of Nancy, a nucleus of practitioners who believed in scientific hypnosis, a therapeutic method using the influence of the mind on the body.
In 1885 Emile Coue`, a young pharmacist from Troyes fascinated by the effects of the mind on the body, visited Dr.Liebeault to learn his techniques. coue subsequently went on to develop the principles of self-suggestion and positive thinking. He is most remembered in the US. for the mantra-like phrase, "Every day, in every way, I'm getting better and better." (p 5)
In 1889 Liebeault republished his first opus as the French celebrated the Centennial of the July Revolution (commonly referred to as "the French Revolution" in the U.S) The year turned out to be a very active one for the world of psychology and a rewarding one for the old doctor, whose fame had begun reaching far abroad Freud, among others, came to Nancy to study Liebeaulte's and Bernheimen's techniques. People allover the world began adopting Liebeault's theories over those of Charcot, the legendary professor in charge of the Salpetriere School in Paris, who had relegated the use of hypnosis to the study of hysteria alone Adherents to Liebeault's view included, in Germany, Albert Moll (1862-1939), a renowned sexologist', and Albert [Philbert Franz Freiherrn] von Schrenck-Notzing (1862-1929), an eminent professor specializing in (p 6) the study of mediums'; in Austria, Richard Krafft-Ebing (1840-19 a forensic specialist and founder of modern seI02), psychopathology'; in Switzerland, Auguste Henri Forel (1848-19xual who started his scientific career with entomology bel31 ), distinguishing himself in the fields of brain anatomy, psychiatry !fore hypnosis: in England, Dr John Milne Bramwell: in Sweden, (and Wetterstrand (1845-1907), a physician from Stockholm, Otto developed methods of prolonged hypnotic sleep; in Russia, Vladimir Mikhallovitch Bechterev (1857 -1927), a psycho-physiologist and close collaborator of Pavlov's who studied skeletal reflexes; in the United States, Morton Prince (1854-1929), who explored the world of split personalities.
Fame abroad did not change Liebeault, who continued to be independent thinker on the fringes of the medical world in his can country. He retired in 1891 and by 1898 had begun experiencing health problems. Then 75 years old, Liebeault was showing signing senility, though his mood was described as cheerful and serene. As the snow was falling on February 18, 1904, at nine in the morning. As Dr. Liebeault, at the age of 80, attended by his wife and by Claire, their adopted daughter, departed for his deepest sleep... (p 7)
5. WHO WAS THIS MAN AND WHAT DID HE BELIEVE? Most of those who met Liebeault with no preconceived opinions took an immediate liking to him. His patients and friends called him "The good father Liebeault" or "The good man Liebeault." The simplicity of his appearance was matched by the force of his intelligence, his honesty, his good nature and.. an absentmindedness characteristic of many geniuses
A unique character: Let's listen to the voices of some of the greatest minds of his time to help us paint Liebeault's physical and intellectual portrait: Freud: "The old and moving Liebeault bore childlike cheerfulness mixed with the authority of a priest, a playful though serious expression, both soft and firm." (p 8)Van Renterghem: "a small man, loquacious and full of vigor, with a wrinkled face, tanned complexion and a country demeanor." Delboeuf: "...a vivacious man, with a forehead deeply furrowed with horizontal wrinkles interrupted by other wrinkles spreading fan-like from the bridge of his nose. The swarthy complexion of a country person, shining and animated eyes, a high-pitched voice that delivered words quickly, an open face, a mix of simplicity and gravity, authority and softness, the cheerfulness of a child, something of the priest. Moreover, he is an apostle-of a apostle who has sacrificed everything to his faith: fortune consideration, well-being. He rarely goes out of his home; in town, he often has to ask for directions, he does not know the name of streets and will even get lost on his way to the station." Beaunis (who later became a member of the School of Nancy): ...The first impression [of the building] was bad. Unfortunately, the appearance of the doctor did not contradict this first impress. This good doctor was obviously not there to impress the crowd. Wearing his old slippers, his threadbare bathrobe, his tie twiddled around his crumpled collar, tousled hair, he looked more like a cobbler than a doctor. Under his somewhat uncouth exterior, under his good-natured appearance, one discovered very quickly an extensive knowledge, a powerful intelligence, an energetic will Can could feel scientific honesty in his words, an unshakable conviction and a deep faith in his ideas, faith he knew how to communicate to others. It was enough to observe attentively this forehead furrow to with wrinkles, caused more by meditation than by age, and to look into his intelligent and penetrating eyes to know at once that he v look no ordinary man." (p 9)
An independent thinker: Liebeault's own writings reveal even more about himself than those of his contemporaries, A Republican (meaning a supporter of the Republic rather than of the Empire) with strong anti-clerical views, Liebeault had a keen appreciation for inquisitive thinking He was not fond of "followers," whether religious or political, as can be seen in Chapter I of Part II of this work: This explains a great deal of popular, political and religious practices in which men follow each other like a herd. And how can irrational turnarounds of drifting masses - yesterday pursuing a misleading mirage and today fascinated by an even more deceiving one - be understood differently. (p. 10)
Liebeault's place in the history of hypnosis: In a speech entitled "Le docteur Liebeault et la doctrine de la suggestion, " given December 12, 1906 at the University of Nancy, Bernheim describes Liebeault's theory of suggestibility as the third important stage in the history of hypnosis. While using such broad strokes to depict the development of a particular science or art automatically excludes many important contributors who do not fit in the given framework, it is nonetheless a practical means to provide a general perspective on the subject at that point in time.
The first stage of hypnotic science, according to Bernheim, was magnetic sleep or animal magnetism, elaborated in Austria by Mesmer (himself influenced by alchemists such as Paracelsus and Van Helmont). Mesmer considered the trance state to be the result of a magnetic fluid or life force passing from a gifted operator to his passive subject. The states Mesmer induced in his subjects were sometimes close to epileptic fits, but many patients felt better afterward, and some conditions were cleared. Bernheim describes the second stage as hypnotic sleep or hypnotism, a term coined by its developer, Dr. Braid from Scotland. (p 16)
This brilliant practitioner considered trance to be a physiological phenomenon, induced by having the subject stare shining object. As a surgeon, Braid focused particularly on anesthetic properties of hypnosis.
Bernheim credits the third stage, induced sleep, to Dol Liebeault, The doctor postulated that the key to the trance state the subject's suggestibility and that repeated suggestions of sleep followed by repeated suggestions of the disappearance of subject's ailments, bring about the cure for many conditions. Trance is, therefore, caused not by a mystical fluid or physiological process but purely by a psychical action. (p 17)
6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE DEGREES OF INDUCED SLEEP: Regardless of the means used to induce sleep, which all lead to the suggestion of the idea of sleeping, the highest degree of sleep is characterized by the inability of the hypnotized subject to make efforts of attention and will-that is, to have the initiative to experience sensations and place them in the brain, remember, think, evaluate and reason, or transmit orders to the organs of movement.
At such stage, subjects are virtually isolated from themselves and the exterior world, except for the fact that they have kept, in a narrow fashion, a sensory and intellectual relationship solely with their hypnotizer. This exceptional trait allowing us to act upon said subjects results from their falling asleep remembering the idea of the hypnotizer and continuing during the transition from the waking state to the sleep state to feel him, see him, hear him, etc. So hypnotized subjects isolated in this way from their surroundings, having remained in rapport with their hypnotizer alone and being questioned by him, will answer him and, like automatons, receive his suggestions and orders given by signs or words. Thus they are merely his instrument and belong to him entirely.
I have based my classification of sleep on the incompetence developed by hypnotized subjects and characterized by their inability to regain their lost powers of attention and will to initiate movements, sensations, ideas and conceptions; the reason for this is because I have noticed, since my beginnings in the field of hypnotization, that people we want to place in this sort of passive state are quite far from reaching all the degrees of incompetence just described. (p 256)
Because in induced sleep the mind of sleepers is more or less numbed for the reasons described, and because due to this numbness the now more docile organs of movement, of the senses and of intelligence are more willing to receive the effects of the mind through suggestion, one can observe in this type of sleep, from the simplest state of inertia of the thinking brain and its dependent organs to their deepest and most complete state of inertia; various degrees identifiable by different characteristics. These signs, which I am going to reveal, mark the graduated progression of mental inertia in each of the degrees. They necessarily result from the various levels of the sleeper's inability to make an effort of attention or will, to become as active as he was before sleeping, or to resist the suggestions given by his hypnotizer. I have recognized these signs in the phenomena related to movements, the senses and memory. Sensibility to pain, which diminishes progressively the deeper we sleep, has not presented a clear enough demarcation between its patterns that could permit me to rely on its main characteristics for my classification. The classification I am offering, being based on the most irreducible element of the hypnotic passive states, that is, the inability to produce an effort, is therefore legitimate and imposes itself regardless of its imperfections.
In it I establish two types of sleep: A) light sleep: and B) deep or somnambulistic sleep.
A. There are four degrees of light sleep.
1) SOMNOLENCE. This degree is distinguished by variable and often not very specific signs. At times the hypnotized subjects fall into drowsiness or torpor, at times they feel local or general fatigue, heaviness of the head. difficulty lifting, etc., but they never become cataleptic. When these signs are pronounced, the sleepers are usually slow to come back to their normal state, even after receiving the suggestion to do so. During 1888, 6.06% of my subjects have presented these signs. (p 257)
We can always find in this degree of sleep some characteristics from the previous one. In addition, catalepsy begins to appear. The subject's limbs remain in the position given to them only because his mental inertia is already great, and for this reason he already has ceased to think of moving them. Yet he is still able to change the position of his limb. If his arm is in a cataleptic extension and he is told, "Try to move your arm, and you will not be able to," he still can do it. Thus, there is already in the degree a production of catalepsy, a beginning of automatism. Of my sleepers, 17.48% manage to reach this state.
3) DEEPER LIGHT SLEEP. In addition to the numbness and the fixated and cataleptic aspects of the previous degree, in this degree of sleep subjects show an aptitude to perform automatic movements in spite of their will. If, for instance, I start moving their arms one around the other and tell them, "Your arms keep on moving" (sometimes this suggestion can be understood by the subject via the impetus given to his limbs without having to express it verbally), then the arms cannot stop moving since the sleepers no longer have enough will to stop to the automatic rotation. In 1888, 35,89% of my hypnotized subjects belonged to this category of induced sleep.
4) INTERMEDIATE LIGHT SLEEP. In addition to presenting the previously mentioned signs, cataleptic individuals in this state have not only lost the power to resist motion imposed on their limbs, but they also partially lack other abilities related to the auditory sense and to memory. First they stop being able to bring their attention to any object or person other than their hypnotizer, having fallen asleep with the idea of this person in mind, they hear no one but him and then, for some reason, recall only their interaction with him. In the same year, 1888, 7.22% of my sleepers have shown the characteristics of this degree of sleep, a degree that marks a very clear transition to the next one. (p 258)
B. There are two degrees of deep, or soml1ambulistic, sleep.
1) ORDINARY SOMNAMBULISTIC SLEEP. This form of sleep col1tail1s aspects of the previous degrees. One additional trait is that the subjects recall absolutely nothing upon waking (ul1like the previous degree, il1 which they remembered the il1teractiol1 betweel1 the hypl1otizer and themselves), and amnesia is complete. 111 this degree, subjects are already likely to hallucil1ate more or less vividly when suggested to do so, al1d these hallucil1atiol1s disappear upon waking. Already 110 10l1ger having the resiliel1ce to place themselves ill relatiol1 to the outer world, they have become highly submissive to the will of the only beil1g with whom they have remail1ed in col11mul1ication while in the sleep state. Of my hypnotized patients, 24.94 % have reached this state of sleep.
2) DEEP SOMNAMBULISTIC SLEEP. Finally, there are hypnotized subjects who presel1t all the characteristics of the previously described degrees. 111 addition to what occurs in ordinary somnambulists, their tactile sense becomes, at least for a period of time, dead in relation to any person other than the hypnotizer. Unlike ill the previous type of somnambulism'; they can no longer be placed il1 a cataleptic state by persons other than the operator, with whom they have remained il1 rapport. Their inability to muster attention or the will to react has become so great that they are almost no longer themselves: they give themselves body and soul to the man who has put them to sleep. This man is their absolute master, and they are as if owned by him. Through suggestion, he has at his disposal the almost unlimited use of their psychical and organic faculties and of their senses (including touch, which is the last one to deaden, when they do). It is this unlimited iIlf1uence that mostly allows him to be 110t only the master of their will, of their acts, of their entire organism to the point of being able to develop stigmata (the effect of imposed ideas), but also to make them hallucinate with all their senses and to have these hallucinations remain with them for an unlimited period of time after waking. In 1888, only 4.66% of my sleepers fell into this high degree of somnambulism. (p. 259)
Such is the classification of the degrees of induc~d sleep that I have been establishing for a few years. It can be observed that along with the sensibility to pain, which sometimes disappears in the first degrees of sleep, and sometimes only in the last ones, the loss of power to make an effort of attention and will is first felt by the muscles, then by the healing sense and memory, and finally by the tactile sense.
I do not presume to split a state that is indivisible with this classification; I simply want to establish points of reference and landmarks in the series of phenomena that occur in this state. I want to identify the different stages of sleep through the increasingly complex changes that accumulate as it becomes deeper, for there are no gaps in induced sleep, from its lowest to its highest degree. It is not that I did not find more or less faded, inverted and exceptionalsigns in all these degrees, but they all fall within the rule.
Thus, generally speaking, there are some anomalies in somnambulism that force the sleeper's senses and brain never to shut off. These organs, always open to the hypnotizer, are only latently so to whatever else is taking place around them. It and if then someone from whom they seemed isolated submits them to violent acts, they are unable, like some chloroformed persons, to oppose him either by shouting or defending themselves. Their perceptions are still taking place, but as if unknown to them at that very moment, and they are unable to reveal their existence by any sign. (See my work Du Sommeil, p. 68 and 69). Mr. Dumont first, then Mr. Bernheim, have conducted some experiments on this topic that confirm my results. But if persons other than the hypnotizer persevere in touching the sleepers and talking to them for some time, they will succeed in being heard by them and entering into complete rapport with them by progressively attracting their attention. And, the effect someone isolated from the somnambulists can produce on them can sometimes be produced by the somnambulists themselves through their own effort. I have met some who showed only the signs of forgetting upon waking; the minute they were hypnotized, they communicated with everyone present and even resisted some of my suggestions. I have seen a lady who while in the somnambulistic state remained as if awake, (p 260) except for the fact that she was unable to open her eyes on her own. One young girl in the same state was as much in rapport with her mother as she was with me; she would always fall asleep with the idea of remaining in relation to her mother, and my suggestions to the contrary did not prevent this from happening. I have also encountered somnambulists Who remembered some unique elements of their sleep. In these exceptional cases, however, I always observed the essential sign of somnambulism: forgetting Upon waking. These anomalies, which sometimes tangle the states I have tried to distinguish, prove that for induced sleep as for other matters, there are no gaps in nature: everything is continuous, everything is linked. (p 261)
7. WHAT THEY SAY ABOUT DR. LIEBEAULT:
[Laurent Carrer is a French native who has lived in the U.S. since 1978. He holds a Ph.D. in Clinical Hypnotherapy from American Pacific University and is a professional translator certified by the American Translators Association. Laurent is passionate about making more historical resources available to English speakers and has begun translating the important works of French pioneers, making them pertinent to our times by providing relevant commentary and biographical/historical background. He is the author of Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault: The Hypnological Legacy of a Secular Saint, which features a translation of Liebeault's main opus, Le sommeil provoqu1 et les 1tats analogues. He is currently working on the translation into English of Abbe Faria's De la cause du sommeil lucide.]
Freud, Sigmund, Dr. 1989. Autobiographical Study. London: Hogarth Press. "With the idea of perfecting my hypnotic technique, I made a journey to Nancy in the summer of 1889 and spent several weeks there. I witnessed the moving spectacle of old Liebeault working among the poor women and children of the laboring classes. I was a spectator of Bernheim's astonishing experiments upon his hospital patients, and I received the profoundest impression of the possibility that there could be powerful mental processes which nevertheless remained hidden from the consciousness of men."
Bernheim, Hippolyte, Dr. 1884. De la suggestion dans l'etat hypnotique et dans l'etat de veille. Paris: Octave Doin: ."I owe to Mr. Liebeault, Doctor of Medicine in Nancy, the technique I have been using to induce sleep and that has produced undeniable therapeutic effects. For more than 20 years, this colleague, defiant of the ridicule and discredit cast on the practices of what is called animal magnetism, has been conducting research and selflessly devoting himself to treating illnesses with induced sleep."
Kroger, William S., Dr. 1977. Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. "In a brief resume, it is impossible to mention the many contributions and contributors of this period. However, some stand out, such as Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault of Nancy, He has been called the real founder of suggestive therapeutics. Bernheim and Liebeault, the legitimate innovators of modern psychotherapy, introduced the concepts of suggestion and suggestibility."
Bramwell, J. Milne, Dr. 1956. Hypnotism: Its History, Practice and Theory. "Though his researches have been recognized, it is certain that they have not been estimated at their true value, and that members of a younger generation have reaped the reward which his devotion of a lifetime failed to obtain."