A TRIBUTE TO DAVID CHEEK (1996) AND

LESLIE LECRON (1972)

EMAIL FROM PAUL B KINCADE: (Email send in response to my request on information concerning the year of Dr. Cheek's death in preparation for this tribute.)  Dear Dr. Durbin, my very dear friend of many years passed away few years ago (Born May 22, 1912; Died June 12, 1996)
 in Santa Barbara, CA, where he lived with his wife, Dolores.  David had a pimple on his jaw and when it got quite inflamed, he went to the doctor, who told him it was an ingrown hair.  Sadly, it turned out to be a fatal cancer and he passed away in a hospice just a few weeks later.  With his death, the world, in general, lost a great humanitarian and hypnosis, in specific, lost a friend, teacher and pioneer.  David was a colleague of the late Milton Erickson and a past-president of ASCH which denounced him because of his advanced thinking.  He and Leslie LeCron, who passed away years ago, made many discoveries, including the use of ideomotor signals and the fact an unconscious person continues to hear and respond at at subconscious level... I learned much at his knee and even had honor of hypnotizing him at at Texas conference when he was suffering from a painful hip problem. I miss him sorely and often feel his guidance when working with clients. I  treasure his many letters over the years and when he died, I sent them, along with copies of audiotapes, to his widow. Paul B. Kincade, MA, SWA, DAPA, CMH, Reno, Nevada

I (Durbin) make this Tribute to David Cheek and Leslie LeCorn together as they often co-authored works on hypnosis and hypnotherapy.

I admire Dr. David Cheek M.D., (died in September 1996 at the age of 84.) for his open mindedness concerning hypnotherapist who did not fit into the mindset of some of his peers. He worked closely with Leslie LeCron in writing the book Clinical Hypnotherapy and several refers to Lecron in his book Hypnosis: The Application of Ideomotor Techniques: (Note Leslie LeCron had a B.A. not a Doctor’s degrees. He would be excluded by those who would restrict the practice of hypnotherapy.)

TRIBUTE TO DOCTOR DAVID B. CHEEK BY PAUL B. KINCADE, MA, SWA, DAPA, CMH:

NOTES FROM CLINICAL HYPNOTHERAPY: David Cheek, M.D. and Leslie M. LeCron, B.A.:

DR. CHEEK’S BOOK HYPNOSIS: THE APPLICATIONS OF IDEOMOTOR TECHNIQUES:

A TRIBUTE TO LESLIE LECRON (1892-1972):

NOTES ON SELF HYPNOSIS: Leslie M. LeCron

NOTES FROM THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO HYPNOSIS: Leslie LaCron

NOTES FROM HYPNOTISM TODAY: Leslie M. LeCron & Jean Bordeaux

MORE NOTES FROM CLINICAL HYPNOTHERAPY: David Cheek and Leslie LeCron:

SOME QUESTIONS TO ASK PATIENTS AS TO CAUSES OF BEING OVERWEIGHT, WITH IDEOMOTOR RESPONSES:  

NOTES FROM MAGIC MIND POWER: Leslie M. LeCron

TRIBUTE TO DOCTOR DAVID B. CHEEK BY PAUL B. KINCADE, MA, SWA, DAPA, CMH:

 This Tribute was sent to me in an email response to a question if anyone knew if Dr. Cheek was still alive: Dear Dr. Durbin: Doctor David B. Cheek, my very dear friend of many years, passed away three years ago in Santa Barbara, California, where he lived with his wife, Dolores. David had a pimple on his jaw and went it got quite inflamed, he went to a doctor, who told him it was an ingrown hair. Sadly, it turned out to be a fatal cancer and he passed away in a hospice just weeks later. With his death, the world, in general, lost a great humanitarian and hypnosis, in specific, lost a friend, teacher and pioneer. David was a colleague of the late Milton Erickson and a past-president of ASCH, which denounced him because of his advanced thinking. He and Leslie LeCron, who passed away many years ago, made many discoveries, including the use of ideomotor signals and the fact an unconscious person continues to hear and respond at a subconscious level. Despite criticism, David was fascinated with past life regression and spirits (not the liquid type). I learned much at his knee and even had the honor of hypnotizing him at a Texas conference when he was suffering from a painful hip problem. I miss him sorely and often feel his guidance when working with clients.

I treasured his many letters over the years and when he died, I sent them, along with copies of audiotapes, to his widow.

Incidentally, in case you were unaware, David and LeCron co-authored "Clinical Hypnotherapy", published in 1968. David wrote an inscription in my copy, dated May 9, 1987. That book first introduced ideomotor signals. Paul B. Kincade, MA, SWA, DAPA, CMH Reno, Nevada

NOTES FROM CLINICAL HYPNOTHERAPY: David Cheek, M.D. and Leslie M. LeCron, B.A.

To the best of my knowledge, this book is no longer in print.) It should be stressed here that the state of hypnosis with its increased suggestibility, literalness of understanding and willingness to comply with optimistic suggestions is a quality of behavior that appears spontaneously in human beings at critical times of fear, illness and unconsciousness. Studies on hypnotizability made with volunteers can valid only for volunteers under the test circumstances of the laboratory. They have nothing to do with the hypnotizability of patients when the therapist feels that hypnosis could prove valuable. The most unhypnotizable volunteer student will enter hypnosis at an adequate level if the therapist presents hypnosis to him with honest conviction that hypnosis will work and will work with this immediate indication. The experienced hypnotherapist approaches an untested patient with the philosophy that all people are in hypnosis.

With this attitude, one can hypnotize essentially 90 per cent of his patients on the first visit. After uncovering and correcting resistances, it should be possible to use hypnosis successfully in nearly 100 per cent of the patients on the second office visit. This is not to be misunderstood as meaning that hypnotherapy will achieve its goal in nearly 100 per cent of one's patients, merely that it will be possible to help a patient achieve at least a light state of hypnosis and be appreciate some of the phenomena of hypnosis by the second visit in nearly all the patients. The stages of hypnosis are usually considered as light, medium, or deep, the latter often called the somnambulistic state. Fortunately only (p 20) a light state is needed for most purposes. In some situations it may even be better than a deep one where lethargy may be so great that communication is difficult. (p 20)

RESISTANCES TO INDUCTION OF HYPNOSIS:

1. Unconscious resistance is often an obstacle even though the individual may be consciously eager to be hypnotized. Fears may be present though unrecognized. These are usually based on the common misconceptions about hypnosis. Therefore, it is uDell for the operator to explain away these mistaken ideas before an induction is attempted.

2. Previous frightening experiences may cause resistance, seemingly because the human mind has retreated into a hypnotic-like state and the (p 21) induction of hypnosis later reminds him of the unpleasant cause of the earlier spontaneous state. This speculation is supported bp repeated observations of subjects who have uncovered their reasons for feeling uncomfortable and wanting to avoid initial experiences with formally induced hypnosis. Such subjects quickly lose their feelings of Fear and are able to enter hypnosis as soon as they learn they need not be reminded of the unpleasant experience again.

3. Fear of loss of control is another reason for initial resistance. There never is such a loss, for the subject is fully aware and, indeed, can awaken himself at anytime if he desires to do so. Fear of talking too much and telling "state secrets" is a misconception quickly dispelled by explanation that it is hard to talk in hypnosis anyway and protective forces within the subject are to be respected by the hypnotherapist.

4. Personality factors may interfere with induction. The methods of talking and presenting ideas by the operator may irritate the subject and interfere with results which could easily be obtained by another, more relaxed therapist. Unpleasant personality traits in the operator could lead to distrust and failure to achieve the necessary rapport.

5. Motivation, mentioned last but of greatest importance, has to be considered in relation to hypnotizeability as it does with therapy in general. Primary motivation must come with the therapist. Even an enthusiastic patient can be cooled by . therapist who is uninterested in the task at hand. In contrast, an uninitiated and scoffing patient may slip right into hypnosis as he picks up the convictions and positive motivations of an interested therapist. Dentists and anesthesiologists are fortunate in having a high percentage of their subjects very highly motivated toward using hypnosis. Fear of pain and fear of the unknown are strong forces on the side of permitting easy induction into hypnosis.

It must also be remembered that symptoms may be unconscious mechanisms of defense or may serve some other purpose. Wile the patient may consciously wish to he helped, unconsciously the need for a that resistance develops m fear that the symptom may be so strong symptom may be taken away. Actually the purpose of therapy is not to eliminate the symptom when it is needed but to make it unnecessary through a revision of viewpoints and better insight. (p 22)

DANGERS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR SELF-HYPNOSIS: Our symposium instructors have taught thousands of patients and hundreds of professional men and women how to hypnotize themselves. We know of no one who has ever had a bad result or found any danger in self-hypnosis. Freedom from any possible danger should be emphasized to the patient who is learning it, because some psychiatrists have claimed that self-hypnosis is always dangerous (Rosen). We emphatically do not agree with this dictum.

A few psychiatrists have warned that a patient might form too many fantasies with self-hypnosis and tend to withdraw from reality. There have been no reports of this ever happening. Theory here is based on clinical experience with psychotic patients who can do this without any training. Such an argument fails to consider that daydreaming is self-hypnosis and that everyone is spontaneously self-hypnotized many times.

There are very few contraindications to the teaching of self-hypnosis. They are as to anyone who is retreating from reality, who is detached, or who tends too much toward introspection and daydreaming. (p 62)

Is Hypnosis Dangerous? WHAT DANGERS does hypnosis involve? Can it be used safely by the practitioner? These are pertinent questions. The answer is that there are some dangers. However, they are minimal and are readily avoided when their possibilities are understood and simple precautions are taken.

Many physicians and dentists who have considered attending courses or otherwise learning hypnotic techniques have feared to do so after reading or hearing some psychiatric criticisms and statements about the great dangers they envision with hypnosis. It can be said emphatically that these are very greatly exaggerated. The title of psychiatrist does not qualify one as an authority on hypnosis in the absence of experience any more than the corner grocer can offer himself as an authority on nutrition.

Harold Rosen, a psychiatrist, has exaggerated the idea of hypnosis being dangerous. He has lectured throughout the country speaking to medical, dental and lay groups, warning that hypnosis should be used only by those who have had extensive training in psychiatry. If this were true, all physicians should also have such training before practicing medicine for much medical practice is concerned with psychosomatic, emotional illnesses. Fortunately psychiatrists with long experience using hypnosis disagree completely. Erickson, undoubtedly the greatest authority on this subject, has said that hypnosis itself is not dangerous in any way, although it can be misused. He feels that hypnotherapists can learn much psychiatry from their patients as long as they respect the needs of these patients and refrain from coercing them in hypnosis.

The best indication that dangers are minimal is the fact that thousands of lay hypnotists and many stage hypnotists who know little about hypnosis other than how to induce it use it indiscriminately, yet bad results are rarely reported.

Another important point is that the professional man is fully covered by malpractice insurance carriers when using hypnosis in the field of work for which he is qualified. No insurance company writing (p 63) malpractice insurance has had any claims because of the use of hypnosis by physicians or dentists. This was reported at a meeting of the Professional Liability Underwriters. No company knew of ally difficulties having developed and no company plans restrictions on the use of hypnosis. (p 63)

Psychoanalysts state that a patient undergoing hypnotherapy becomes extremely dependent on the therapist, with a greater transference developing. It is true that there may be a great dependence initially, but this is of advantage to both the patient and the therapist. As progress is made and the illness or condition responds to treatment, dependence dwindles away. A large part of hypnotherapy is the building of ego strength in the patient. Hypnosis facilitates this and then dependency needs are ended or modified. It could be pointed out that anyone continuing in analysis for three or four years with little progress certainly is displaying great dependence on the analyst.

It is true that there may be a strong need for a symptom and it may serve some purpose, such as being a defense mechanism. It is very doubtful if a greatly needed symptom could ever be removed by suggestion. Suggestions are only effective if they are acceptable.

In actual practice, symptom removal by hypnotic suggestion is seldom attempted. In the old days of hypnosis, that was the only method of psychotherapy known, yet it was very rare for a new symptom to form, and the method was often successful. When a situation calls for an attempt at symptom removal by suggestion, there is a safeguard which would prevent any danger: that is to make the suggestions permissive rather than commanding If there is a strong need for the symptom, the suggestion would not be carried out and no possible harm would result.

Another safeguard should also be applied. With the questioning technique it should be asked of the patient, "Is it all right for you to lose this symptom?" If the answer given by the subconscious mind is affirmative, there is not the slightest danger. If negative, no attempt at removal should be made at that time. (p 68)

PRINCIPLES OF PREPARING PATIENTS FOR SURGERY: In the light of our understanding as offered by experienced patients, we can state the following:

1. Keep all statements phrased in optimistic terms, stating as well as implying your faith in the patient's ability to do very well.

2. Avoid statements which could be interpreted pessimistically, such as directions associated with words like "if," as in "You can go home in five days if all goes as expected."

3. Tell the patient what you plan to do, even at the risk of a malpractice suit, without equivocation. If unexpected reasons for doing otherwise occur at the operating table and you discuss the reasons at that time, there will be little cause to fear litigation. Few things are more disturbing to a patient on the eve of surgery than feeling the surgeon does not know what will be done the next day.

4. Outline the sequence of events after admission to the hospital, including the steps before an incision is made.

5. Teach the patient how to relax, how to make one part of the body numb, and how to transfer that numbness to other parts of the body such as the intended site for operation.

6. Place the patient in deeper hypnosis and ask for hallucination of rapid recovery of consciousness after surgery, early desire to move about in order to improve circulation in the incision area, and immediate feelings of hunger to insure early ability to take food, prevent nausea and eliminate gas. Suggestions can also be made as to normal body functions and elimination postoperatively, thus preventing urine retention.

7. Terminate the rehearsal by hallucination with request for the patient to visualize on a blackboard the date or day when he is very well recovered and ready to go home from the hospital. This is the most important part of the preparation and should be left until this point because many unrecognized fears will have disappeared. Unwillingness to hallucinate a discharge date is a danger signal that must not be passed over lightly. Cheek asks for an ideomotor response when the date is clear at a subconscious level. The number or date is to pop into the patient's conscious mind as the finger lifts. This method, which developed from work with habitual abortion patients, uncovers fear without suggesting it.

8. Ask the patient to orient to the origin of a reason for not selecting a date for discharge or for indicating "I don't want to answer" if either of these has happened. Be sure to check the nighttime ideation during the night before admission to the hospital when you suspect a fearful or pessimistic attitude. (p 164)

9. Ask the patient to select some very pleasant experience of a vacation trip. Ask for an ideomotor signal when the best experience has been selected and ask for a verbal report when this comes into conscious awareness. Tell the patient to remember t2lis in detail, starting with the preoperative hypodermic injection. This is to be the ticket for the excursion. Tell the patient there will be noises in the operating room but you want them to be associated with sounds on the vacation. Explain that you will keep him posted on all important things but will always address him by his first name. Everything else is to be ignored. You want your patient to make the detailed review stretch from the time of the hypodermic until return to the regular room. Explain that the purpose of this exercise in memory is to keep the appetite and all the normal vegetative processes ready for resumption of duty on awakening from the anesthetic instead of carrying the worries and alarms of surgery as a pattern of behavior on awakening. This makes sense to patients and keeps you from sounding mentally deranged

10. Either keep the patient informed of each new action yourself after induction of anesthesia or be sure it is done by your anesthesiologist. We are not yet past the time of skepticism on continued hearing ability, and you must be prepared for laughter and derisive remarks from associates. Important events to be announced: intubation, positioning, cleanup, catheterization, transfers to carriage and thence to bed. (p 165)

DR. CHEEK’S BOOK HYPNOSIS: THE APPLICATIONS OF IDEOMOTOR TECHNIQUES:

Cover

While the client is in hypnosis, the therapist ask question for the subconscious mind to answer. The questions can usually be answered by "yes", "no", "I do not know", "I do not want to answer". The method of soliciting the answer is usual down with a finger response or by us of a pendulum. For the finger response: There are some questions which I would like to ask you. Now, these questions can be answered "yes", "no", "I don’t want to answer". "I don’t know". Your subconscious mind is able to answer each question I ask you. Your subconscious mind is controlling the fingers of your hand. I request that your subconscious mind is pick out a "yes" finger, and that finger is becoming very light. In fact, it is lighter than air and just wants to float up. Don't resist it, don't assist it, just let it drift up. The "yes" finger is beginning to rise. That's good, your finger of your hand is the "yes" finger. Now just let your finger float back down, and as it does, you become twice as relaxed.

Now, allow your subconscious mind to pick out a "no" finger. Now, just let the "no" finger began to rise. Your subconscious mind is causing your "no" finger to rise. That's good. Your finger of your hand is the "no" finger. Now, just let your finger float back down, and as it does, you become twice as relaxed.

Now, allow your subconscious mind to pick out a "I don’t want to answer" finger. Now, just let the "I don’t want to answer" finger began to rise. Your subconscious mind is causing your "I don’t want to answer" finger to rise. That's good. Your finger of your hand is the "I don’t want to answer" finger. Now, just let your finger float back down, and as it does, you become twice as relaxed.

Your subconscious mind is controlling your fingers so let us begin with the questions and just let your subconscious answer.

The same instructions can be given with the pendulum. A pendulum can be a ring hinging on a string, or a specially made pendulum. By holding the string between the finger and thumb, the pendulum will began to swing. It may go in a circle clockwise or counter clockwise, or it may go back and forth or swing right to left. In a similar manner to the finger response, the therapist get the pendulum to swing with one of the direction for "yes", another for "no" and "I don’t know" The process that is involved in "ideomotor" response is that "thoughts cause a physical action." When the therapist ask questions, the relevant finger lifts in response or the pendulum swings in response: even when the patient consciously thinks otherwise, or had no conscious awareness of the answer.

I have seen clients nod their had "no", while finger or pendulum responded with "no".

By the use of ideomotor response, Dr Cheek discovered that babies are influenced by the emotions of the mother. "If a fetus mistakenly interprets to a mother’s worries as rejection the felling will be imprinted and permanent, subsequent love and nurturing by the mother will not alter the earlier assumption." In working with couples using hypnosis in preparation for childbirth. I tell them of the importance of their emotions on their unborn child.

A TRIBUTE TO LESLIE LECRON (1892-1972) by Chaplain Paul G. Durbin:

I first became interested in hypnosis while participating in the Clinical Pastors Education Program at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C. We had an "Introduction to Hypnosis" seminar led by our CPE supervisor, Chaplain Carl Ray Stephens. Following that seminar I bought a book written by Frank Caprio and Joseph Berger entitled, Helping Yourself With Hypnosis. I put that unread book in my bookcase and forgot about it. Read it about ten years later and became interested in the possibility of the use of hypnosis in my pastoral ministry. I went to two nearby book stores and bought all the books on hypnosis that I could find. Among those were two books by Leslie LeCron. His work has always been an inspiration and influence on my use of hypnotherapy.

NOTES ON SELF HYPNOSIS: (By Leslie M. LeCron (1964) A Signet Book NY):

DR. FRANK S. CAPRIO’S FORWARD TO LESLIE LECRON’S SELF-HYPNOTISM: SIGNET BOOK, NEW JERSEY, 1964

Leslie LeCron is by no means a beginner in the field of hypnosis. He is considered, and rightfully 80, an established and highly qualified authority on the subject. He has written several other books of a more technical nature, books which are now being used by those working in the field of hypnosis. He is the editor of an excellent book entitled Experimental Hypnosis, and he has served as a pioneer lecturer and director of Hypnosis Symposiums, an organization which teaches the techniques of hypnosis to various professional groups throughout the country .

Having had the opportunity of listening to his lecture courses, I welcome the privilege of expressing my personal comments here. It is gratifying to know that Mr . LeCron has written a book that will not only benefit the health of many thousands of people but will also enlighten physicians, dentists, psychologists and other professional people regarding the inestimable value of hypnosis and auto-hypnosis.

Today, more than ever, people are seeking ways of helping themselves. They want to know how they can enjoy better health, achieve equanimity or peace of mind, and how they can become successful in life. Mr . LeCron proves to his readers that they can attain these goals via RIGHT THINKING. Because we are all susceptible to being influenced by our own thoughts, after we have mastered his techniques, we are free to do many new and wonderful things. This book makes possible the understanding of our inner selves. It utilizes the power of our subconscious minds, teaches us how to develop body-mind relaxation and inspires confidence in our individual potentialities.

Self-help, as the author points out, has many advantages over other forms of therapy. It is based on the premise that self-knowledge leads to self-confidence which in turn leads (p vii) to effective self-discipline and ultimately results in a happier and healthier way of life.

Mr. LeCron's formula for successful living can best be summarized in his own words: "Exploring the inner mind is the key to knowing yourself. It will unlock the door to the reasons for character and behavior problems, for emotional disturbances and il1nesses, for traits such as phobias and fears and anxiety, and for many other personal problems such as everyone has. When you know the motivations and reasons behind these things, it is far easier to solve or overcome them and to make the changes which will bring health, happiness and success."

As a practicing psychiatrist I can vouch for the many benefits which patients derive from self-suggestion therapy. No one denies that certain conditions require the help of a specialist. But there are many things a person can do, with proper guidance, that will enable him to help himself. A book. such as this one, that helps people help themselves, is very much needed. People need to know more about emotionally induced illness. They need to know how to manage their emotions successfully, how to develop personality-maturity and cultivate a better sense of values.

This book achieves these very objectives. It teaches the reader the techniques of utilizing the power of his own mind for self-improvement. FRANK S. CAPRIO, M.D.

The mind has been compared to an iceberg floating in the sea; the conscious part is above water, the subconscious is that under the water - a very large part of the whole. The total person is a unit, a mind and a body, each influencing the other. The whole individual must be considered in dealing with emotional disturbances. The inner mind works through the brain to control the body and to affect it. (p. 28)

Rules to follow in making suggestions. Suggestions may be permissive or commanding, direct or indirect, positive or negative. Autosuggestions will be direct rather than indirect. A positive on has much more force than a negative one. To make a suggestion positive, avoid such negative words as "not," "don't," "won't," and "can't." I won't have a headache tomorrow" is a negative suggestions. "My head will be clear and I will feel well tomorrow" is positive.

A permissive suggestion is more likely to be carried out than a dominating command. Most us resent being commanded to do something. The mind may resent it with autohypnosis and will be more cooperative as a rule if asked something rather than ordered to do it. But sometimes commands may be best. Individuals react differently. If there is an unconscious need to be dominated, then commands would be better. Phrasing a suggestion with the words "you can" is permissive; "you will" is a command.

Repetition is the main rule in making suggestions work. they should be repeated there or four times or even more. All advertising is based on suggestion and advertisers know that the effect of repeated ads in cumulative. Commercials on TV are repeated again and again, as your have undoubtedly noted to your annoyance. (p. 64)

Autosuggestions may be made verbally, though it usually is not necessary to say the words aloud. Thinking them is enough... If a visual image can be formed and added to a verbal suggestion, it will make the suggestion more potent. There is a tendency on the part of the subconscious to carry out any prolonged and repeated visual image. I will depend on the type of suggestion you us whether or not a visual image can be added. (p. 65)

The subconscious should not be burdened with too any suggestions at one time. It is better to work on only on one thing at a time, or at most two. The effect becomes diffused otherwise... Be specific as to your goal. Your inner mind know for better than you conscious mind how to reach the goal. Stimulate it into action and it will find the best means. (p. 66)

GUILT: We all have faults and weaknesses and fall short of our ideals. No one is perfect. There is something of the caveman in all of us, instincts or attitudes suppressed by the taboos of society. At times we do things which we regret, have thoughts which we regard as bad. This is part of our human nature. Conscience is a brake on many of our desires, fortunately, or the world would be a much worse place than it is. However, we can be entirely too conscientious... (p. 98) Dwelling on the past and developing strong feelings of guilt is most harmful. Guilt and shame can take quite a toll, with self-punishment and emotional disturbing resulting.. (p. 98-99)

WORRY: Worry is another most unpleasant conditioned reflex, when overdone. Everyone worries at times and it is a normal emotion in some situations as when a loved one is seriously ill. Chronic worry is abnormal. The "worry wart" worries no matter how well things are going. If the cause for some worry is ended, he quickly finds something else to worry about... The main basis of worry is negative and apprehension, always expecting the worst to befall. The result of worry is tension, thus increasing the tendency to worry - a vicious circle... Every time he finds himself worrying, he should divert his mind to pleasant things. (p. 99)

NOTES FROM THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO HYPNOSIS: (By Leslie LaCron. (1971) Harper & Row Publishers. New York, NY)

It may surprise you to know that you've been self-hypnotized spontaneously hundreds or even thousands of times. Although these spontaneous states are not ordinarily termed hypnosis, that is just what they are. These spontaneous states occur probably every day of our lives. Do you ever daydream? Everyone does. It's a state of hypnosis. When you become absorbed in anything - reading a book, in your work, in a hobby - you slip into hypnosis. There are many other situations were self-hypnosis develops spontaneously - an interesting lecture, motion picture, television program, or religious ceremony can bring on self-hypnosis. (p. 4)

SELF-IMAGE: Most of us have a tendency to exaggerate our liabilities and to minimize our assets. We may also feel guilty about bad characteristics, with a resulting need for self-punishment for having them. This would apply whether or not they are hereditary. In order to be rid of liabilities, the first step is to gain a proper perspective about ourselves, to see ourselves in a proper light. Many people look at themselves through the wrong end of the telescope. Having the proper body image is an important first step.

Probably the most common characteristic liability is the well-known inferiority complex. There are few people who do not have some feelings of inferiority, at least along certain lines. For many of us some of these feelings may be of no importance at all. For instance if one lacks musical talent of ability - so what? He doesn't have to become a musician. (p. 123)

Along with feelings of inferiority there is usually other liabilities. Lack of confidence in oneself is one. An unconscious need to be approved by another. A poverty complex may accompany them. Almost every one who feels greatly inferior is a negative thinker, and being able to think in a positive way is most important to success in this life. (p. 123-124)

NOTES FROM HYPNOTISM TODAY: (By Leslie M. LeCron & Jean Bordeaux (1947) Wilshire Book Company. No. Hollywood, CA):

To most people the word "hypnotism" conveys a suggestion of the supernatural. It is tinged with occultism, shading toward necromancy, mysterious and mystical. The mental image of a "hypnotist" brings visions of the fictional Svengali or the real-life Rasputin - tall, dark, gaunt and sinister, with glitter, piercing eye. The scientist, the educator, the business executive, the professional man, almost any well-educated intelligent person asked to become a hypnotic subject, shows alarm and hastily declines, fearful of damage to his mind or of finding himself in the power of the hypnotist. (p. 7)

Ever since mankind settled into tribal communities, hypnotism has played a part in human life. Practiced by witch doctors, medicine men, shamans, priest, and religious leaders, though never admittedly as hypnotism, its phenomena were often described as miracles performed by the Gods. Today it is seen in the rituals of many of the Oriental, African, Polynesian, American Indian and other races. The Hindu fakir on a bed of nails and South Pacific fire dancers probably make use of hypnotic anaesthesia to pain, as perhaps was done also by the early Christian martyrs. In ancient Egypt there were the "sleep temples," and a papyrus of three thousand years ago set forth the procedure for hypnosis much as it is performed today. (p. 16)

The priests of most ancient races, particularly in the Orient, were familiar with hypnotism. It is described in some of the mantras of India written in ancient Sanskrit and undoubtedly has reached its highest development among the Indian yoga of today, whose methods merit careful study. The Persian Magi, the Mongols, Tibetans, and the Chinese all had knowledge of hypnosis. A detailed description of it is given in the Kalevala, great epic poem of the Finns. (p.16-17)

Mesmer observed the faith cures of a Catholic priest known as Father Gassner who lived at Klosters in what is now the boundary of Switzerland. Discovering healing powers in himself, Gassner explained his work as a form of exorcism, in order to secure church approval. Hundreds of the afflicted, possessed by devils according to the belief of the day, came to be healed and the priest would appear before them, clad all in black and holding aloft a crucifix. One observant physician has described the treatment of a peasant woman. Gassner, after a theatrical entrance into the room, touched her with the crucifix an she promptly fell to the floor in a swoon. Speaking in Latin, he order her to move her left arm, when she did, although supposedly not familiar with the language, stopping at the command "Cesset!" He then ordered her heart to beat more slowly, and the physician found the pulse very slow. At a further command it increased to 120 beats per minute. Gassner then told the woman to lie dead on the floor, announcing he would restore her to life. Soon the physician pronounced her dead, for no pulse nor respiration was discernable. On the command, she revived and rose completely "cured" of her disorder after the demon had been ordered to depart. (p.17)

Mesmer watched a similar demonstration by Gassner in the year 1770 and was greatly impressed though he took little stock in the demonic possession hypothesis. He did realize that some unknown force was working and reasoned out a theory, conjecturing that the body had two poles like a magnet, with an invisible magnetic fluid being thrown off by the body. Disease was only an improper flow of this fluid, and illness could be cured by correcting the flow. Only certain people, Mesmer included, were gifted with the power to control the fluid an such persons would cause it to flow from them into the patient. This could even be done indirectly by "magnetizing" any object, perhaps of water which would then impart the fluid to anyone touching it. (p. 17-18)

Popular belief in suggestibility as a mark of unitelligence or weak-mindedness is completely in error, and test show that those of higher unintelligence are more easily hypnotized. Suggestibility should not be confused with gullibility, although the credulous and gullible are, of course, highly suggestible. Gullibility implies the use of deceit, which is not involved in suggestibility. (p 79)

NOTES FROM CLINICAL HYPNOTHERAPY: Dr. David Cheek and Leslie LeCron:

WHAT ARE THE ALLEGED DANGERS? A very common idea is that if a symptom is removed by hypnotic suggestion another will form, possibly a worse one. The compulsive drinker might turn to narcotics if his need to drink were to be inhibited. This idea is based on a Freudian concept that behind a symptom there is a force seeking an outlet, the symptom providing the outlet. If the outlet is blocked by removal of the symptom, the force will seek another outlet. It is surprising how Prevalent has been the acceptance of this theory which has no basis in fact. What is this mysterious force. It cannot be demonstrated in any way.

It is true that there may be a strong need for a symptom and it may serve some purpose, such as being a defense mechanism. It is very doubtful if a greatly needed symptom could ever be removed by suggestion. Suggestions are only effective if they are acceptable.

In actual practice, symptom removal by hypnotic suggestion is seldom attempted. In the old days of hypnosis, that was the only method of psychotherapy known, yet it was very rare for a new symptom to form, and the method was often successful. When a situation calls for an attempt at symptom removal by suggestion, there is a safeguard which would prevent any danger: that is to make the suggestions permissive rather than commanding If there is a strong need for the- symptom, the suggestion would not be carried out and no possible harm would result.

Another safeguard should also be applied. With the questioning technique it should be asked of the patient, "Is it all right for you to lose this symptom?" If the answer given by the subconscious mind is affirmative, there is not the slightest danger. If negative, no attempt at removal should be made at that time.

Strangely, this idea of danger in symptom removal is applied only to the use of suggestion Psychiatric critics prescribe tranquilizers by the millions for depression and for other conditions. This is symptom removal by drugs. If it is by drugs it is considered safe, but if by suggestion it is dangerous of course this is nonsense and ridiculous. It is well recognized that loss of resistance to infection may be psychogenic. Use then of an antibiotic would be "dangerous" removal of a symptom.(p 68)

On patients hearing while under anesthesia: Dave Elman, a stage hypnotist who became a teacher of physicians and dentists after World War II, told Cheek about his first experience discovering that anesthetized patients could hear and react badly. It was about 1947. He was asked by a surgeon to hypnotize a woman and cause her to stop vomiting. Vomiting had been a prominent symptom before surgery, but her gallbladder full of stones had been removed and she should have been eating well by the time Elman was called. Elman had no preconceived notions about anesthesia experiences. He intended only to place her in a deep trance and suggest that she feel hungry on awakening. In deep hypnosis she became agitated as she was asked if she knew why she continued to vomit after surgery. She quoted her surgeon as saying, "She'll never be the same after this." This had seemed a worse alternative than the vomiting which had existed before surgery. Elman called in the surgeon who explained to the patient that he had intended to mean she would no longer vomit now that the diseased gallbladder had been removed. When this misunderstanding had been corrected, she stopped vomiting and made an uneventful recovery.

In 1953 Cheek attended a symposium on medical and dental applications of hypnosis. The instructors were Erickson, LeCron and Aaron (p 160) Moss. Both Erickson and LeCron expressed themselves with assurance that anesthetized people could hear much more than surgeons believed possible. Both had found examples of it. LeCron told of a female patient who had refused to go back to her surgeon. She had liked him very much before surgery. In hypnosis she quoted him as saying while she was anesthetized, "Well, that will take care of this old bag!" Of course the anecdote seemed amusing, but Cheek was convinced, from nine years of exploration with hypnosis, that anesthetized people could not hear. These conclusions were drawn on the mistaken premise that hypnotized people will answer questions in the affirmative when they know a negative would stop the need for further effort.

In October 1957, at a Hypnosis Symposium in Houston with LeCron, a physician continued to indicate with ideomotor signals that he was hearing two unpleasant things during his appendectomy. An ideomotor response indicated beginning and end of the operation. Between these signals he persisted in signaling with a finger that he heard two disturbing remarks. His pulse and respiratory rates increased just before each signal. His facial expression showed distress each time, but he could not tell the group what was going on. He was asked to go over the experience again and stop when he got to the bad part. Then Cheek asked, "What do you hear?" Verbally he would say, "Nothing," with an appropriate shake of his head. When asked to have a finger answer the question "Do you hear anything frightening or disturbing?", he would appear puzzled as he found his "yes" finger lifting. After 13 repetitions of the entire experience, he was able to verbalize the two unpleasant comments: (1) "It's gangrenous!" This was spoken in an ominous way. He had no knowledge of that word, but it sounded bad. (") "Okay, let's get out of here and go home." This was disturbing because he knew his abdomen was still open. As a youngster he did not know the figure of speech often used by surgeons. He believed they were planning to go away and leave him there on the table with his abdomen open.

SOME QUESTIONS TO ASK PATIENTS AS TO CAUSES OF BEING OVERWEIGHT, WITH IDEOMOTOR RESPONSES: To ascertain the factors which may be causing either overweight or overeating, questioning could include the following:

1. Is there some emotional or subconscious cause for you to be overweight (or to overeat)?

2. Is your inner mind willing for you to know the reasons for your overeating (or overweight)?

3. Are you identifying with someone, perhaps a parent, who was or is overweight?

4. Do you overeat when you feel rejected? Do you overeat from frustrations Do you overeat to feel more secure?

5. Is one of the causes because when you were a baby you felt better when you were fed?

6. Does food act as a bribe or reward for you? Do you think of food when you are emotionally upset? Do you like your appearance now?

7. Do you tend to dislike yourself as to your body image? Do you dislike yourself in other ways?

8. Are you punishing yourself by being overweight?

9. Are you unconsciously trying to harm yourself by being overweight?

10. Do you substitute food (stomach appetite) for sexual appetite?

11. Is there some conflict in your inner mind over sex that leads to overeating or overweight?

12. Are you carrying out some fixed idea implanted in your mind as a child about eating, an idea about not wasting food, that food is good for you, that you must clean your plate, or other similar ideas?

13. Are you using your overweight condition for some purpose, possibly as an alibi of some kind?

14. Are you trying to make yourself unattractive to avoid sex or members of the opposite sex?

15. Are you using this condition as a revolt, to be contrary toward yourself or someone else?

16. Are there any other motives or reasons for overeating?

17. Are there any other motives or reasons for being overweight?

Other questions can be devised, depending on the individual case. When some of the above have been answered, it may be necessary to learn more. For instance, with self-punishment as a factor, the source of guilt feelings should be uncovered. If conditionings are located, the triggering ideas should be discovered and removed.(p 187)

NOTES FROM MAGIC MIND POWER: (By Leslie M. LeCron. (1982). DeVorss & Company.Marina del Rey, CA):

Many of our illnesses are psychologically and emotional caused, with the subconscious producing illness. Tension and stress can make us vulnerable to infectious diseases. Knowledge on their causes and of ways of controlling this inner mind can often eliminate such disease. (p. 12)

THE IMPORTANCE OF POSITIVE THINKING: Having faith is a matter of taking

a positive attitude toward whatever you wish to accomplish or to occur. There is not shadow of a doubt but that people who think in a positive way achieve much more than does the negative thinker. Essentially, positiveness and negativeness can be expressed simply as "I can" opposed to "I can't." No matter what techniques are used for self-benefit and improvement, a positive attitude is vital or there probably will be few results. If you take a positive attitude toward anything, your subconscious tries to carry it out, whatever is involved, though sometimes blocks may be present to prevent this despite your positive approach. If your attitude is negative and you doubt, the subconscious will do nothing to accomplish what you seek. (p. 20)

WITH THE INNER MIND: It is possible to set up a code of signals as a means of communicating directly with your inner mind. Questions can be asked, worded so they can be answered positively or negatively - "yes" or "no." There are two ways of securing replies to questions. On consists of movement of a small, light object tied to a thread or string and held so it dangles and thus forms a kind of pendulum.

For example, a pendulum may be formed from a finger ring, an earring, or other light piece of jewelry, or a light iron washer or nut. To the object is tied a thread or string about eight to ten inches long. This technique or uncovering method has been taught to several thousand physicians, including many psychiatrists, and has been used to great advantage by them. Thousands who have read some of my other books and learned the technique have been able to help themselves in making changes in themselves.

In using the pendulum the thread should be held between the thumb and forefinger, with your elbow resting on the arm of a chair, on a desk, or perhaps on your knee as you lean forward. The object then dangles freely. (p. 27) There are four basic directions in which the pendulum can swing. Your subconscious will move your fingers, so the pendulum swings without your being aware of such control. The four motions are (1) a clockwise circle, (2) a counterclock wise circle, (3) straight back and forth across in front of you, or (4) in and out away from you.

You may specify the meaning of each movement, but it is better to allow your subconscious to make its own selections or decisions as to the motions. This shows you that that part of the mind does think and reason and it tends to bring cooperation on its part.

There is noting mysterious or magical in this. Your subconscious control your fingers and the moves of the pendulum, although you are not consciously aware of it. That part of your mind controls lots of muscular movements. It controls your breathing muscles. When you walk you do not think of all the coordination of muscles involved -- your subconscious regulates this.

One of the four motions is to signify "yes," another is to mean "no." A third can mean "I don't know," and the fourth can mean "I do not want to answer that question." The last may be important and usually will indicate some resistance on the part of your inner mind. Of course there would be some reason for not wanting to answer any particular question. (p. 28)

It has been used for hundreds of years as a way of trying to learn the future, for prognostication. Our use here is entirely different and has nothing to do with predictions. It is merely a device to obtain information known by the inner mind but not consciously known. You should avoid trying to obtain future predictions by this means. The inner mind may be accommodating and give you an answer, but it is not to be trusted implicitly. It could be expensive to try to learn the winner of a horse race or what will happen on the stock marker. (p. 29)

ARE PENDULUM REPLIES RELIABLE? Involuntary movements such as those of the pendulum are technically called ideomotor motions. The experience of all the therapist who have used this means of communicating with the inner mind is that the answers given are almost always correct. Sometimes it is possible to verify them. That part of them mind seems to prefer to say it will not answer a question rather than to give false information. (p. 29)

THE USE OF FINGER MOVEMENTS: Another way of secure answers from your subconscious is by means of finger movements which act as signals, just as do the motions of the pendulum, being unconsciously controlled and therefore also ideomotor. You can assign the answers, stating which finger is to represent which of the four replies, or you can let your subconscious select the fingers as when using the pendulum...

Of course you should make not effort to lift a finger voluntarily and it is est to try not to thing of the answer to any question. When the finger is about to lift there will be tingling sensation in the muscles. If unconsciously controlled it will invariably tremble or wiggle, as it lifts. Usually the finger comes up to a pointing position, but sometimes will only move a fraction of an inch. The motion may be very slow. (p. 30)

AUTOMATIC WRITING: While ideomotor movements like this are just a variation of automatic writing, there is a great advantage in the writing over the signaling of answers. The subconscious is not then confined in its replies. It can write out information in detail and can even volunteer information. It may take a bit of practice before you can learn to write automatically, but sometimes the writing begins very quickly. (p.31)

For this it is best to set in a comfortable chair that has no arms. Place a lapboard or breadboard in your lap. When sitting at desk your arm cannot move as freely as when it is in your lap at a lower level. For paper use shelf-paper in a roll. You can keep pulling out more and more as needed...

You can warm up the hand by writing your name voluntarily two or three times and making a few small circles or loops on the paper. Then tell your inner mind that it is to take control of your arm and is to write about any subject it wishes to use. The hand may move at once or it may be several minutes before there is any action. When it does write, do not try to anticipate the words as they are written... Writing may be carried out in the usual way, from left to right across the page, but sometimes you will be surprised to find it executed backwards, from right to left, upside down, or as mirror writing.(p.31-32)

PRAYER, FAITH, AND BELIEF: In addition to (suggestions) another means that can be very effective in bringing results is invoking the help of God by prayer. While some readers may have little interest in religion, a very large part of the population does believe in the existence of God, whether or not they are members of some denomination and attend church. It is not necessary to be deeply religious in order to use the power of prayer to advantage. It makes a no difference whether you are a Christian, a Mohammedan, or member of any other religious group.

All religions teach that prayer is effective. Most teach that there is a supreme God who will listen to prayer. It doesn't mater what name is given to Him. It is difficult to think that there is not some Universal Mind. (p. 61)

All religions are founded on faith. To use prayer effectively, faith is results, and positive thinking are of the utmost importance. Otherwise why should your pray be answered? Negative thinking and doubts certainly will block results from occurring. In our bible Matthew quotes Jesus as saying, "All things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive,"

There is no doubt that faith healing, practiced in many religions, can bring cure of illnesses, even physical ailments and of course those that are psychosomatic -- those with emotional or psychological factors causing them. (p. 61-62)

Most people are conscientious and yet are normal human beings and sometimes do or think along lines that they later regret. None of us wears wings and a halo. Guilt feelings that develop often bring on an unconscious need for self-punishment. For good results with any of the methods given here self-punishment must be ended.

Most religions teach that God is a kind of father figure but that he is a loving father, not a revengeful one, and that sins will be forgiven. Our consciences often ignore such teachings and instead of leaving punishment to the Supreme Being we may unconsciously take it on ourselves to punish ourselves... Yet the inner mind may set itself up as judge, prosecutor, and jailor. Self-punishment comes only from with-in, directed by the subconscious mind.

To overcome guilt feelings so that prayer and other techniques can be effective, it is necessary to be rid of guilt that calls for self-punishment. (p. 62-63) (Forgiveness is the way to be released from the need for self-punishment. Accept God's forgiveness and forgive yourself.)

You are ready to use prayer most effectively when you have full faith that your prayers can and will be answered... Repetition is important in prayer, just as it is with the use of suggestion... Practice is needed...Your prayers may be for improvement in your own self situation; they may be also directed for the benefit of others.

In wording prayers it is best to use the same methods as in wording suggestions, asking for the desired results. The actual wording need not be the same, but prayers should be brief and you should pray for end results without attempting to tell God how to bring them about. (p. 64)